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Nuclear Safeguards Education Portal

Introduction to Nuclear Security & Safeguards

Acquisition Path Analysis: Analysis of all plausible acquisition paths; aim is to determine whether proposed safeguard measures are sufficient. More.
Additional Protocol: The Additional Protocol (AP) was passed by the IAEA Board of Governors in 1997 to address the failures of existing safeguards measures to detect the Iraqi nuclear weapons program prior to the Gulf War. More.
Adversary: Any individual performing or attempting to perform a malicious act. More.
Bangkok, Treaty of: The Southeast Asian Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone Treaty (SEANWFZ) or the Bangkok Treaty of 1995, is a nuclear weapons moratorium treaty between 10 Southeast Asian member-states under the auspices of the ASEAN. More.
Comprehensive Safeguards Agreement: An agreement in which a State undertakes to accept IAEA safeguards on all nuclear material in all peaceful nuclear activities within its territory, under its jurisdiction or carried out under its control anywhere. More.
Containment and Surveillance: The use of C/S measures is aimed at verifying information on movement of nuclear or other material, equipment and samples, or preservation of the integrity of safeguards relevant data. More.
Conversion time: The time needed to undergo the changes in nuclear material to produce a nuclear explosive device. More.
Defense in Depth: The combination of multiple layers of systems and measures that have to be overcome or circumvented before nuclear security is compromised. More.
Delay: To slow or hinder the progress of a threat. More.
Design Basis Threat (DBT): The attributes and characteristics of potential insider and/or external adversaries, who might attempt unauthorized removal of nuclear material or sabotage, against which a physical protection system is designed and evaluated. More.
Design Information Verification: The activities carried out by the IAEA at a facility to verify the correctness and completeness of the design information provided by the State. More.
Detection: Determining that an unauthorized action has occurred or is occurring. More.
Deterrence: An act that discourages the adversary from attempting to continue with their plan. More.
Diversion: An attack, or feint, that draws the attention and force of an enemy from the point of the principal operation. More.
Diversion Path Analysis: An analysis of all the possible outcomes for diversion of nuclear material from a facility. More.
IAEA Nuclear Security Series: The IAEA has issued a series of publications on nuclear security that address the fundamentals of nuclear security and various guides and recommendations for implementation. More.
IAEA Timeliness Detection Goals: The target detection times applicable to specific nuclear material categories. More.
Information Circular (INFCIRC): a series of resolutions and agreements written by the IAEA that are intended to guide safeguards implementation. More.
Insider Threat: One or more individuals with authorized access to associated facilities or associated activities or to sensitive information or sensitive information assets, or one or more individuals with nuclear security responsibilities who could commit a malicious act or who could aid an external threat to do so. More.
Integrated Safeguards: A combination of safeguards available to the IAEA that allow the IAEA to achieve maximum effectiveness and efficiency of their obligations. More.
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA): The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is an international organization that seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy, and to inhibit its use for any military purpose, including nuclear weapons. More.
Material form: Classification of nuclear material according to its physical form; material can be either in item form or in bulk form. More.
Non-compliance: When a State or nation goes into violation of the safeguards agreements made with the IAEA. More.
Nuclear Material Accountancy: The practice of nuclear material accounting as implemented by the facility operator and the State system. More.
Nuclear Safeguards: A set of technical measures that are applied on nuclear material and activities, […] to independently verify that nuclear facilities are not misused and nuclear material is not diverted from peaceful uses More.
Nuclear Safety: The prevention and mitigation of accidents involving nuclear materials that could harm staff and public More.
Nuclear Security: The prevention and detection of, and response to, theft, sabotage, unauthorized access, illegal transfer or other malicious acts involving nuclear or other radioactive substances or their associated facilities. It should be noted that 'nuclear security' includes 'physical protection.' More.
Nuclear Security Culture: the assembly of characteristics, attitudes and behavior of individuals, organizations and institutions which serve as a means to support and enhance nuclear security. More.
Nuclear Security Regime: includes a range of elements and activities to support nuclear security. More.
Nuclear Verification: monitoring of nuclear activities and the detection of violations of international treaties and other nuclear nonproliferation commitments More.
Nuclear Weapon-free Zones: The establishment of Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zones (NWFZ) is a regional approach to strengthen global nuclear non-proliferation and disarmament norms and consolidate international efforts towards peace and security. ( More.
Nuclear Weapons States: states that have successfully detonated nuclear weapons and are party to the Treaty on the Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons. More.
Pelindaba, Treaty of: The African Nuclear Weapon Free Zone Treaty, also known as the Treaty of Pelindaba establishes a Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone in Africa. More.
Physical Protection System (PPS): An integrated set of physical protection measures intended to prevent the completion of a malicious act. More.
Rarotonga, Treaty of: The Treaty of Rarotonga is the common name for the South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty, which formalizes a Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone in the South Pacific. The treaty bans the use, testing, and possession of nuclear weapons within the borders of the zone. More.
Response: Persons, on-site or off-site, who are armed and appropriately equipped and trained to counter an attempted unauthorized removal of nuclear material or an act of sabotage. More.
Security, Safeguards, & Safety (3S): 3S refers to the integration of security, safeguards, and safety concerns in nuclear installations More.
Sabotage: Any deliberate act directed against an associated facility or an associated activity that could directly or indirectly endanger the health and safety of personnel, the public, or the environment by exposure to radiation or release of radioactive substances. More.
Safeguards Approach: A set of safeguards measures chosen for the implementation of safeguards in a given situation in order to meet the applicable safeguards objectives. More.
Semipalatinsk, Treaty of: The Central Asian Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone (CANWFZ) treaty is a legally binding commitment by Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan not to manufacture, acquire, test, or possess nuclear weapons. More.
Small Quantities Protocol: a modified safeguards agreement for countries with little or no nuclear activities. More.
Theft: The removal of nuclear material or information from a facility that was not authorized. More.
Threat Spectrum: The threat spectrum is part of threat definition and presents the range of potential threats in an organized way that can be easily evaluated. Information about potential adversaries is filled into a chart, such as the one pictured below, that designers use to compare the motivations, potential targets, and capabilities of adversaries. More.
Timely Detection: The probability of detection of an adversary while there is still time for response forces to stop the adversary from accomplishing their intended goal. More.
Tlatelolco, Treaty of: The Treaty of Tlatelolco is the conventional name given to the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean. More.
Voluntary Offer Agreement: safeguards agreements covering the peaceful nuclear activities of the five NPT nuclear weapons states (China, France, Russian Federation, UK, USA) More.